IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Get instant access to lessons taught by experienced private equity pros and bulge bracket investment bankers including financial statement modeling, DCF, M&A, LBO, Comps and Excel Modeling. The business projects a $5 million loss if the firm loses the case, but the legal department of the business believes the rival firm has a strong case. As the name suggests, if there are very slight chances of the liability occurring, the US GAAP considers calling it a remote contingency. Contingent liabilities are classified into three types by the US GAAP based on the probability of their occurrence.

If both conditions do not exist, the contingent liabilities must record in the financial note. If the management cannot measure the amount reliably and likelihood, it is not required to record the liability. It is possible that the asset (cash) will flow into the company, but it is not certain that the company will win the lawsuit. The company cannot record anything base on the uncertainty, we have to wait until the lawsuit is settled.

If the contingent liability is probable and
inestimable, it is likely to occur but cannot be
reasonably estimated. In this case, a note disclosure is required
in financial statements, but a journal entry and financial
recognition should not occur until a reasonable estimate is
possible. A contingent liability is a liability that may occur depending on the outcome of an uncertain future event. Contingent liabilities are recorded if the contingency is likely and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated.

  1. If it is determined that not enough is being accumulated, then the warranty expense allowance can be increased.
  2. However, if the contingent liability is probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated, it gets reported as a liability in the financial statements, much like an actual liability.
  3. If a loss is reasonably possible, you would add a note about it to the company’s financial statements.
  4. Under the GAAP, a business should record a contingent liability in its financial records when the liability is likely and able to be estimated.

Contingent liabilities, although not yet realized, are recorded as journal entries. Like, if as per precedent and the discretion of a lawyer, a case’s outcome is deemed as ambiguous, then such contingency shall only be mentioned in the footnotes. In this manner, companies shall navigate the vagaries of contingent liabilities. A possible contingency is when a liability might or might not arise, but chances of its occurrence are less likely than that of a probable contingency, i.e. lower than 50%.

Applicability of Contingent liabilities in investing

Note that even if a contingent liability is not recorded in the balance sheet due to uncertainty, the information about it should still be disclosed in the notes accompanying the financial statements. This disclosure should include the nature of the contingent liability, an estimate of the potential loss, and any significant factors that may affect the final outcome. Let’s expand our discussion and add a brief example of the calculation and application of warranty expenses. In another case, if the future cost is remote (i.e. unlikely to occur), the company doesn’t need to make journal entry nor disclose contingent liability at all. Sierra Sports may have more litigation in the future surrounding
the soccer goals.

Where is a contingent liability recorded?

These lawsuits have not yet been filed or are in
the very early stages of the litigation process. Since there is a
past precedent for lawsuits of this nature but no establishment of
guilt or formal arrangement of damages or timeline, the likelihood
of occurrence is reasonably possible. Since the outcome is possible, the
contingent liability is disclosed in Sierra Sports’ financial
statement notes. Google, a subsidiary of
Alphabet Inc., has expanded from
a search engine to a global brand with a variety of product and
service offerings. Check out
Google’s contingent liability
considerations in this press
release for Alphabet Inc.’s First Quarter 2017 Results to see a
financial statement package, including note disclosures.

The contingent liability remains on the balance sheet until your company pays it off. For example, a company might be involved in a legal dispute that could result in the payment of a settlement based on a verdict reached in a court. However, at the time of the company’s financial statements, whether there will be a settlement liability and the date and amount of any settlement have yet to be determined. This is an example of a contingent liability that may or may not materialize in the future. Other the other hand, loss from lawsuit account is an expense that the company needs to recognize (debit) in the current accounting period as it is a result of the past event (i.e. lawsuit).

3 Balance sheet—liabilities

Contingent liabilities are a type of liability that may be owed in the future as the result of a potential event. As you’ve learned, not only are warranty expense and warranty
liability journalized, but they are also recognized on the income
statement and balance sheet. The following examples show
recognition of Warranty Expense on the income statement
Figure 12.10and Warranty Liability on the balance sheet

Figure 12.11 for Sierra Sports. While a contingency may be positive or negative, we only focus
on outcomes that may produce a liability for the company (negative
outcome), since these might lead to adjustments in the financial
statements in certain cases. Estimation of contingent liabilities is another vague application of accounting standards.

Nevertheless, generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, only require contingencies to be recorded as unspecified expenses. A contingent liability threatens to reduce the company’s assets and net profitability and, thus, comes contingent liabilities in balance sheet with the potential to negatively impact the financial performance and health of a company. Therefore, such circumstances or situations must be disclosed in a company’s financial statements, per the full disclosure principle.

This ratio—current assets divided by
current liabilities—is lowered by an increase in current
liabilities (the denominator increases while we assume that the
numerator remains the same). When lenders arrange loans with their
corporate customers, limits are typically set on how low certain
liquidity ratios (such as the current ratio) can go before the bank
can demand that the loan be repaid immediately. It does not make any sense to immediately realize a contingent liability – immediate realization signifies the financial obligation has occurred with certainty. Contingent liabilities should be analyzed with a serious and skeptical eye, since, depending on the specific situation, they can sometimes cost a company several millions of dollars. Sometimes contingent liabilities can arise suddenly and be completely unforeseen. The $4.3 billion liability for Volkswagen related to its 2015 emissions scandal is one such contingent liability example.

Accounting roundup — Closing Out 2021

If the contingencies do occur, it may still
be uncertain when they will come to fruition, or the financial
implications. FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 5 requires any obscure, confusing or misleading contingent liabilities to be disclosed until the offending https://accounting-services.net/ quality is no longer present. Similarly, the knowledge of a contingent liability can influence the decision of creditors considering lending capital to a company. The contingent liability may arise and negatively impact the ability of the company to repay its debt.

This liability is not required to be recorded in the books of accounts, but a disclosure might be preferred. The determination of whether a contingency is probable is based
on the judgment of auditors and management in both situations. This
means a contingent situation such as a lawsuit might be accrued
under IFRS but not accrued under US GAAP. Finally, how a loss
contingency is measured varies between the two options as well. Under US GAAP, the
low end of the range would be accrued, and the range disclosed.

It can be recorded only if estimation is possible; otherwise, disclosure is necessary. For example, Sierra Sports has a one-year warranty on part
repairs and replacements for a soccer goal they sell. Sierra Sports notices that some of its soccer
goals have rusted screws that require replacement, but they have
already sold goals with this problem to customers. There is a
probability that someone who purchased the soccer goal may bring it
in to have the screws replaced.

The opinions of analysts are divided in relation to modeling contingent liabilities. (Figure)Emperor Pool Services provides pool cleaning and maintenance services to residential clients. Review each of the transactions, and prepare any necessary journal entries for each situation. Due to the accident, the company is highly likely to pay some compensation to the client.

In conclusion, contingent liabilities — manifesting from environmental and social responsibilities – tell a story about a firm’s sustainability. How well a company can plan for, manage, and mitigate these liabilities is indicative of their commitment to sustainability. Thus, a meticulous approach to these potential obligations forms an integral part of business strategy, inherently connecting contingent liabilities with sustainability. Let’s consider another example – a beverage company sponsoring a community health program. If part of their commitment includes covering certain healthcare costs for local residents, the company has a contingent liability that relies on those health expenses being incurred.